Matthew 23

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The English word “duty” only appears a few times in the New Testament but the same Greek word is also translated “ought” which appears many times. And as I said “ought" is simply the auxiliary verb "used to express duty or moral obligation."
Another word "opheilo" is translated "ought" and is found in verses 16 and 18 but translated debtor and guilty.

[1] Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, [2] Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: [3] All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works:[1] for they say, and do not. [4] For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.[2] [5] But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries[3], and enlarge the borders of their garments, [6] And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, [7] And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.[4] [8] But be not ye called Rabbi[4]: for one is your Master[5], even Christ; and all ye are brethren. [9] And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven. [10] Neither be ye called masters[5]: for one is your Master[5], even Christ. [11] But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.[6] [12] And whosoever shall exalt[7] himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.

[13] But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites[8]! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven[9] against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in. [14] Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites[8]! for ye devour widows' houses[10], and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. [15] Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites[8]! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves. [16] Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor![11] [17] Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? [18] And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty.[11] [19] Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? [20] Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon. [21] And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein. [22] And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon. [23] Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites[8]! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought[12] ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. [24] Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. [25] Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites[8]! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. [26] Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also. [27] Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites[8]! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. [28] Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy[13] and iniquity[14]. [29] Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites[8]! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, [30] And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. [31] Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets. [32] Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. [33] Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

[34] Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: [35] That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. [36] Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. [37] O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! [38] Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. [39] For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

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  1. Jesus is talking about us doing something different than the Pharisees. Were they Workers of iniquity?
  2. Pharisees were the government of Judea and Religion was they way they operated the welfare system of the day.
  3. phylacteries: pieces of parchment containing sentences of the law put in a leather pouch strapped to the forehead with the leather thong wrapped around the arm to the hand.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Rabbi is more often translated master.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 2519 ~καθηγητής~ kathegetes \@kath-ayg-ay-tace’\@ from a compound of 2596 and 2233; ; n m AV-master 3; 3
    1) a guide
    2) a master, teacher
  6. Luke 22:25 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors. 25 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors. 26 But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve. 27 For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth. 28 Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations. 29 And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;
  7. 5312 ~ὑψόω~ hupsoo \@hoop-so’-o\@ from 5311; v AV-exalt 14, lift up 6; 20
    1) to lift up on high, to exalt
    2) metaph.
    2a) to raise to the very summit of opulence and prosperity
    2b) to exalt, to raise to dignity, honour and happiness
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 5273 ~ὑποκριτής~ hupokrites \@hoop-ok-ree-tace’\@ from 5271; n m AV-hypocrite 20; 20
    1) one who answers, an interpreter
    2) an actor, stage player
    3) a dissembler, pretender, hypocrite FROM 5271 ~ὑποκρίνομαι~ hupokrinomai \@hoop-ok-rin’-om-ahee\@ middle voice from 5259 and 2919; v AV-feign 1; 1
    1) to take up another’s statements in reference to what one has decided for one’s self
    1a) to reply, answer
    2) to make answer (speak) on the stage
    2a) to impersonate anyone, play a part
    3) to simulate, feign, pretend
  9. The Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heavenare the same.
  10. Today widows loose their homes because of inheritance taxes and property taxes. The same was true at the time of Christ.
  11. 11.0 11.1 3784 ~ὀφείλω~ opheilo \@of-i’-lo\@ or (in certain tenses) its prolonged form ~ὀφειλέω~ opheileo \@of-i-leh’-o\@ probably from the base of 3786 (through the idea of accruing); v AV-ought 15, owe 7, be bound 2, be (one’s) duty 2 (Lu 17:10, ), be a debtor 1, be guilty 1, be indebted 1, misc 7; 36
    1) to owe
    1a) to owe money, be in debt for
    1a1) that which is due, the debt
    2) metaph. the goodwill due
  12. 1163 ~δεῖ~ dei \@die\@ third person singular active present of 1210; v AV-must 58, ought 31, must needs 5, should 4, misc 7, vr ought 1; 106
    1) it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper
    1a) necessity lying in the nature of the case
    1b) necessity brought on by circumstances or by the conduct of others toward us.
    1c) necessity in reference to what is required to attain some end
    1d) a necessity of law and command, of duty, equity
    1e) necessity established by the counsel and decree of God, especially by that purpose of his which relates to the salvation of men by the intervention of Christ and which is disclosed in the Old Testament prophecies
    1e1) concerning what Christ was destined finally to undergo, his sufferings, death, resurrection, ascension
  13. 5272 ~ὑπόκρισις~ hupokrisis \@hoop-ok’-ree-sis\@ from 5271; n f AV-hypocrisy 5, dissimulation 1, condemnation 1; 7
    1) an answering
    2) an answer
    3) the acting of a stage player
    4) dissimulation, hypocrisy
  14. 458 ~ἀνομία~ anomia \@an-om-ee’-ah\@ from 459; n f AV-iniquity 12, unrighteousness 1, transgress the law + 4160 1, transgression of the law 1; 15
    1) the condition of without law
    1a) because ignorant of it
    1b) because of violating it
    2) contempt and violation of law, iniquity, wickedness