Elders

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The family was an institution of God and elders were merely the heads of families. The early Church in general was a network of families who came together in a particular kind of fellowship that bound their intentional community together by love and charity, in faith instead of force, and in hope instead of entitlements, according to the perfect law of liberty in the practice of what was called Pure Religion. The Church ministers appointed by Christ offered an alternative to the covetous practices of the world which according to Peter would make you merchandise and curse children and according to Polybius "degenerate (the people) into perfect savages who find once more a master and monarch". The Elders of Liberty formed the Altars of Earth that assembled themselves into groups of Tens.families congregating in groups of 10s, 100s, 1000s for the purposes of Christ who came to serve.


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Elders of God

An Elder is not an office of the Church as much as it is the status of the head of a family. The Greek word presbuteros[1] can mean just "old man" or "eldest". The word appears more than 60 times.[2]

It appears over a hundred times in the Old Testament where it also means old man or oldest man. It was the Pharisees and the Modern Christians who tried to turn it into an office.

The congregation of the people is composed of what Abraham called the altars of earth, or “adamah”. Each of us are living sacrificial altars of clay, sons of Adam whose Father was God. We are both priest and king of our own freewill choice. Our offering within the family and to the community is by charity.[3]

The priests are first the people. They were often called kohens or priests. Priest, is derived from Greek, via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" or eldest head of a family.

A priests in a national sense is “a person authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion” but religion use to be defined as “the performance of your duty to God and your fellowman”.

That religious duty has been pursued by people either through systems of charity which the Church in the wilderness called freewill offerings and sacrifice, or through rulers where the people were provided for through compelled offerings directed by men who rule over the people and were called the Fathers of the earth.

In other words the two systems that could be pursued by the people was either through the Church or State. One was based on the free choices of the heads of families and the other was dependent upon rulers who exercised authority over the people like Cain, Nimrod or the Pharaoh of Egypt or the Caesar of Rome.

Israel was a theocratic republic where God was to rule through the hearts of the people, the elders or priests of each family. The Levites as priests of that society served the “tabernacles of the congregations” of a nation by serving the "tents" of each family in free assemblies.

Those assemblies donated to the minister of their choice who acted as a voluntary health, education and welfare agency to help care for the needs of society through a network of ministers supported entirely by freewill offerings of the people, for the people and by the people. The Corban of the Pharisees was the antitheses of system of charity and made the word of God to none effect.

The Elders of each family were both priests and kings within their own family but to come together as a nation required someone to act as as priest on a national level. The people were gathered in congregations of ten but they shared what they produced with the national priests of their society to help maintain the community and strengthen its natural bonds.

A minister of the congregation is first chosen by the people as we see being done in Acts 6:3.[4] Each individual family is represented by the head or elder of the family who freely chooses their own minister. In the documents and form offered in service by His Church individuals may be called the electorate.[5]

The electorate have been referred to individually as “elders” of families or collectively as the laity, from the Greek laos, meaning people. In terms of the world they may appear to be a constituency,[6] but they are simply the people who choose from moment to moment, and day to day, to support the leadership of those who continue to be perceived by the people as the ministers of God and the servants of His people.

Those who are freely chosen as by an electorate of elders, freely giving their votive offering in a free assembly, become the living “stones” of lively altars of our sacred sacrifice to God for the people. They are the public minister of the congregation who are seeking to follow The Way of Jesus.

These chosen ministers are the unhewn stones of God’s sacred living altars. Unhewn is a metaphor for being unregulated. In their ministration of this system of faith, hope, and charity the good will of the people for the people is administered by the choice of the people. The people maintain their right to decide to whom and how much they shall contribute. What ever they choose to give is paid in full.[7] There is no coercion in the kingdom of God but their own God given conscience. The ministers have power over how those contributions shall be managed because once given they are burned up to the people.

The ministers of the Church have an unregulated authority on how they use that offering, but if they are not a fruitful government that provides for the people with love and mercy and strengthens the poor, then the offerings will go to other ministers according to the free choice of the people. That liberty to choose remains with the people and the elders of each family. This system of thanksgiving will be like Christ who came to serve or it will perish. Together, the ministers and the people form the temple of God, made of living earth and stones, formed in their hearts and minds by God in Pure Religion. This is the kingdom of God and His righteousness.

The Old Testament elder

We see in the Old Testament that there were elders there too. By the time Israel evolved into Judea after centuries of kings the governments and people turned the word elder into an office. Since the modern Christians have the Pharisee view of the Old Testament and Torah rather than a more Essene view they hand turned the word elder into an office "clothed with authority".[8] The Hebrew word for elder is zaqen[9] which is the same word for old or aged[10]. We can see these two word as three Hebrew letter ZayinKufNun.

  • ז ZAYIN The Service and Valor, cut and bread, war and nourish. [weapon.... Cut to cut off manacle] 7
  • ק KUF or Kof Omnipresence - Redemption of Fallen Sparks The paradoxical union reish and a zayin holiness or separateness omnipresence of God [Cord... back of the head... Behind the last, least] 100
  • נ ן NUN Heir to the Throne, Aramaic fish in the Mem (fish in flowing waters) or in the Hebrew the Nun may mean the kingdom. [fish moving... Activity life] 50

The first time we see the word translated "elder" in the Bible is Genesis 18[11] which simply referred to Sarah as "old".

Some looking at Exodus 3:16[12] try to turn this natural position into an office of government but Moses was setting the people free from men who exercise authority.

Even the word "gather"[13] just meant to "gather" or "to gather oneself or themselves" and had nothing to do with "appointing an office of authority" to rule over the people. Each of these elders ruled over their own families because they were the natural heirs of the wealth of the family ready to pass on their wealth and power to their natural sons from "generation to generation".

We even see the see this same term "elder" is used by Moses in Exodus 10:9[14] mean "old" as opposed to young.


The Kingdom of God was from generation to generation an the power of the state in Israel remained in the hands of the individual families so it was only natural that the eldest member of any family group held the power of the state. That power ws not to include power over the next family.

Israel could not form a nation with the families power of choice if it was not for the Levites who formed a separate body.

There was a clear disposition of God for the younger to respect the older. This moderated society because of the natural maturity brought with age and a paternal love that molded view of love and honor among each family of a kingdom where there were no kings from generation to generation.

The same letters ZayinKufNun are also translated age, old age, old man or old women, ancient, aged, eldest, ancient man, beard 19 times and even into the word "senators" in Psalms 105:22 "To bind his princes at his pleasure; and teach his senators wisdom."

Another elder

Another word traqnslated elder in the Old Testaament is gadol[15] from the Hebrew verb gadal [16] composed of the same Hebrew letters GimelDeletLamed meaning "to grow, become great or important".

All forms of gadal, GimelDeletLamed, GimelDeletVavLamed and even GimelDeletVavLamedHey[17]Great, greatness or magnify.

  • ג Gimel Reward and Punish, Cause and effect. Do to others as they should do.
  • ד DALET Selflessness – Charity, back and forth or through a door or pathway, to enter like a fish.
  • ל LAMED means Aspiration of the Heart or to learn or even direct like a shepherd. It has to do with what the Hand produces, or directs with staff, whip... like the tongue may direct.

The word gadal is translated elder or eldest about a dozen times but forms of great over four-hundred times. Almost everywhere you see the word as elder or eldest they are speaking of elder siblings like Shem to Jepheth or Esaua to Jacob or David's older brothers. Age gave an automatic rank in society but this word is not the word we see Moses use in Exodus 10:9 [18]. The word we see there for "old" is zaqen[19] ZayinKufNun and is actually translated Senator at least once. The same letters actually produce the word for beard and almost always have to do with age but can be connected with authority.

The Old men of Rome

The word for Senator in Rome was also meant "old man". In the early republic of Rome the Senate[20] had no legislative power because they two were titular. Between 753 BC until the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC it was an advisory institution of the king. But after the kings were thrown out it became of greater influence although "the senate could only make "decrees" and not laws"[21] like the modern senates of the world. There was a time when they were elected from the national pool of "old men" to form an official group called the Senate. Even though they did not make laws they were called "magistrates" because of their power to here disputes of law like an appeals court. Another body of executive magistrates held more power than the Senate and was elected by the people/
That Roman Senate was usually composed of wealthiest of "old men" because it was unpaid position and eventually the Emperor appointed new senators for life but required that their net worth was equal to at least a million sesterces.[22]

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Footnotes

  1. 4245 ~πρεσβύτερος~ presbuteros \@pres-boo’-ter-os\@ comparative of presbus (elderly); adj AV-elder 64, old man 1, eldest 1, elder woman 1; 67
    1) elder, of age,
    1a) the elder of two people
    1b) advanced in life, an elder, a senior 1b1) forefathers
    2) a term of rank or office
    2a) among the Jews
    2a1) members of the great council or Sanhedrin (because in early times the rulers of the people, judges, etc., were selected from elderly men)
    2a2) of those who in separate cities managed public affairs and administered justice
    2b) among the Christians, those who presided over the assemblies; (or churches) the NT uses the term bishop, overseers, 1985 pastors, 4166 elders, and presbyters 4245 interchangeably {#Ac 20:17,28 Eph 4:11 Tit 1:5,7 1Pe 5:1-4 etc.}
    2c) the twenty four members of the heavenly Sanhedrin or court seated on thrones around the throne of God
  2. Matthew 15:2 Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders <4245>? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread.
    Matthew 16:21 From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders <4245> and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.
    Matthew 21:23 And when he was come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders <4245> of the people came unto him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority?
    Matthew 26:3 Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders <4245> of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,
    Matthew 26:47 And while he yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and elders <4245> of the people.
    Matthew 26:57 And they that had laid hold on Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders <4245> were assembled.
    Matthew 26:59 Now the chief priests, and elders <4245>, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death;
    Matthew 27:1 When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders <4245> of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death:
    Matthew 27:3 Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders <4245>,
    Matthew 27:12 And when he was accused of the chief priests and elders <4245>, he answered nothing.
    Matthew 27:20 But the chief priests and elders <4245> persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.
    Matthew 27:41 Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders <4245>, said,
    Matthew 28:12 And when they were assembled with the elders <4245>, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers,
    Mark 7:3 For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders <4245>.
    Mark 7:5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders <4245>, but eat bread with unwashen hands?
    Mark 8:31 And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders <4245>, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
    Mark 11:27 And they come again to Jerusalem: and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders <4245>,
    Mark 14:43 And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders <4245>.
    Mark 14:53 And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders <4245> and the scribes.
    Mark 15:1 And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders <4245> and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.
    Luke 7:3 And when he heard of Jesus, he sent unto him the elders <4245> of the Jews, beseeching him that he would come and heal his servant.
    Luke 9:22 Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders <4245> and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.
    Luke 15:25 Now his elder <4245> son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard musick and dancing.
    Luke 20:1 And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders <4245>,
    Luke 22:52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders <4245>, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
    John 8:9 And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest <4245>, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.
    Acts 2:17 And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men <4245> shall dream dreams:
    Acts 4:5 And it came to pass on the morrow, that their rulers, and elders <4245>, and scribes,
    Acts 4:8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Ghost, said unto them, Ye rulers of the people, and elders <4245> of Israel,
    Acts 4:23 And being let go, they went to their own company, and reported all that the chief priests and elders <4245> had said unto them.
    Acts 6:12 And they stirred up the people, and the elders <4245>, and the scribes, and came upon him, and caught him, and brought him to the council,
    Acts 11:30 Which also they did, and sent it to the elders <4245> by the hands of Barnabas and Saul.
    Acts 14:23 And when they had ordained them elders <4245> in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they believed.
    Acts 15:2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders <4245> about this question.
    Acts 15:4 And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders <4245>, and they declared all things that God had done with them.
    Acts 15:6 And the apostles and elders <4245> came together for to consider of this matter.
    Acts 15:22 Then pleased it the apostles and elders <4245>, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren:
    Acts 15:23 And they wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders <4245> and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia:
    Acts 16:4 And as they went through the cities, they delivered them the decrees for to keep, that were ordained of the apostles and elders <4245> which were at Jerusalem.
    Acts 20:17 And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders <4245> of the church.
    Acts 21:18 And the day following Paul went in with us unto James; and all the elders <4245> were present.
    Acts 23:14 And they came to the chief priests and elders <4245>, and said, We have bound ourselves under a great curse, that we will eat nothing until we have slain Paul.
    Acts 24:1 And after five days Ananias the high priest descended with the elders <4245>, and with a certain orator named Tertullus, who informed the governor against Paul.
    Acts 25:15 About whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders <4245> of the Jews informed me, desiring to have judgment against him.
    1 Timothy 5:1 Rebuke not an elder <4245>, but intreat him as a father; and the younger men as brethren;
    1 Timothy 5:2 The elder women <4245> as mothers; the younger as sisters, with all purity.
    1 Timothy 5:17 Let the elders <4245> that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine.
    Hebrews 11:2 For by it the elders <4245> obtained a good report.
    James 5:14 Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders <4245> of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord:
    1 Peter 5:1 The elders <4245> which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:
    1 Peter 5:5 Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder <4245>. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.
    2 John 1:1 The elder <4245> unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love in the truth; and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth;
    3 John 1:1 The elder <4245> unto the wellbeloved Gaius, whom I love in the truth.
    Revelation 4:4 And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders <4245> sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold.
    Revelation 4:10 The four and twenty elders <4245> fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying,
    Revelation 5:5 And one of the elders <4245> saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.
    Revelation 5:6 And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders <4245>, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.
    Revelation 5:8 And when he had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders <4245> fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.
    Revelation 5:11 And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders <4245>: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;
    Revelation 5:14 And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders <4245> fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.
    Revelation 7:11 And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders <4245> and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God,
    Revelation 7:13 And one of the elders <4245> answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they?
    Revelation 11:16 And the four and twenty elders <4245>, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces, and worshipped God,
    Revelation 14:3 And they sung as it were a new song before the throne, and before the four beasts, and the elders <4245>: and no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth.
    Revelation 19:4 And the four and twenty elders <4245> and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.
  3. 1 Corinthians 13:13 “And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these [is] charity.”
  4. Acts 6:3 “Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.”
  5. Acts 6:5 “And the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch:”
    The word chose is from eklegomai meaning to pick out, choose, to pick or choose out for one’s self1a) choosing one out of many, i.e. Jesus choosing his disciples1b) choosing one for an office.
  6. “a body of citizens entitled to elect a representative” Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Law, © 1996
  7. Luke 16:8 “And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.”
  8. Elder - A name frequently used in the Old Testament as denoting a person clothed with authority, and entitled to respect and reverence (Gen. 50:7). It also denoted a political office (Num. 22:7). The "elders of Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of authority. Moses opened his commission to them (Ex. 3:16). They attended Moses on all important occasions. Seventy of them attended on him at the giving of the law (Ex. 24:1). Seventy also were selected from the whole number to bear with Moses the burden of the people (Num. 11:16, 17). The "elder" is the keystone of the social and political fabric wherever the patriarchal system exists. At the present day this is the case among the Arabs, where the sheik (i.e., "the old man") is the highest authority in the tribe. The body of the "elders" of Israel were the representatives of the people from the very first, and were recognized as such by Moses. All down through the history of the Jews we find mention made of the elders as exercising authority among the people. They appear as governors (Deut. 31:28), as local magistrates (16:18), administering justice (19:12). They were men of extensive influence (1 Sam. 30:26-31). In New Testament times they also appear taking an active part in public affairs (Matt. 16:21; 21:23; 26:59).
    The Jewish eldership was transferred from the old dispensation to the new. "The creation of the office of elder is nowhere recorded in the New Testament, as in the case of deacons and apostles, because the latter offices were created to meet new and special emergencies, while the former was transmitted from the earlies times. In other words, the office of elder was the only permanent essential office of the church under either dispensation." Easton's Bible Dictionary
  9. 02205 ^ןקז^ zaqen \@zaw-kane’\@ from 02204; adj; AV-elders 115, old 23, old man 19, ancient 14, aged 3, eldest 1, ancient man 1, senators 1, old women 1; 178 1) old 1a) old (of humans) 1b) elder (of those having authority)
  10. 02204 ^ןקז^ zaqen \@zaw-kane’\@ a primitive root; v; AV- … old 26, aged 1; 27 1) to be old, become old 1a) (Qal) to be old, become old 1b) (Hiphil) to grow old, show age
  11. Genesis 18:11 Now Abraham and Sarah [were] old [and] well stricken in age; [and] it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.
  12. Exodus 3:16 ¶ Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and [seen] that which is done to you in Egypt:
  13. 0622 ^ףסא^ ‘acaph \@aw-saf’\@ a primitive root; v; AV-together 51, gather 86, assemble 15, rereward 5, misc 51; 200 1) to gather, receive, remove, gather in
    1a) (Qal)
    1a1) to gather, collect
    1a2) to gather (an individual into company of others)
    1a3) to bring up the rear
    1a4) to gather and take away, remove, withdraw
    1b) (Niphal)
    1b1) to assemble, be gathered
    1b2) (pass of Qal 1a2)
    1b2a) to be gathered to one’s fathers
    1b2b) to be brought in or into (association with others)
    1b3) (pass of Qal 1a4)
    1b3a) to be taken away, removed, perish
    1c) (Piel)
    1c1) to gather (harvest)
    1c2) to take in, receive into
    1c3) rearguard, rearward (subst)
    1d) (Pual) to be gathered
    1e) (Hithpael) to gather oneself or themselves
  14. Exodus 10:9 And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we [must hold] a feast unto the LORD."
  15. 01419 ^לודג^ gadowl \@gaw-dole’\@ GimelDeletVavLamed or (shortened) ^לדג^ gadol \@gaw-dole’\@ GimelDeletLamed from 01431; ; AV-great 397, high 22, greater 19, loud 9, greatest 9, elder 8, great man 8, mighty 7, eldest 6, misc 44; 529 adj
    1) great
    1a) large (in magnitude and extent)
    1b) in number
    1c) in intensity
    1d) loud (in sound)
    1e) older (in age)
    1f) in importance
    1f1) important things
    1f2) great, distinguished (of men)
    1f3) God Himself (of God)
    subst
    1g) great things
    1h) haughty things
    1i) greatness
    n pr m
    1j) (CLBL) Haggedolim, the great man?, father of Zabdiel
  16. 01431 ^לדג^ gadal \@gaw-dal’\@ a primitive root; v; AV-magnify 32, great 26, grow 14, nourish up 7, grow up 6, greater 5, misc 25; 115
    1) to grow, become great or important, promote, make powerful, praise, magnify, do great things
    1a) (Qal)
    1a1) to grow up
    1a2) to become great
    1a3) to be magnified
    1b) (Piel)
    1b1) to cause to grow
    1b2) to make great, powerful
    1b3) to magnify
    1c) (Pual) to be brought up
    1d) (Hiphil)
    1d1) to make great
    1d2) to magnify
    1d3) to do great things
    1e) (Hithpael) to magnify oneself
  17. 01420 ^הלודג^ gᵉduwlah \@ghed-oo-law’\@ or (shortened) ^הלדג^ gᵉdullah \@ghed-ool-law’\@ or (less accurately) ^הלודג^ gᵉduwllah \@ghed-ool-law’\@ from 01419; n f; AV-greatness 7, great things 3, majesty 1, dignity 1; 12
    1) greatness
    1a) of man
    1b) of God’s greatness (as an attribute)
  18. Exodus 10:9 "And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we [must hold] a feast unto the LORD.
  19. 02205 ^ןקז^ zaqen \@zaw-kane’\@ from 02204; adj; AV-elders 115, old 23, old man 19, ancient 14, aged 3, eldest 1, ancient man 1, senators 1, old women 1; 178
    1) old
    1a) old (of humans)
    1b) elder (of those having authority)
  20. The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC).
  21. Read more at: Ducksters Copyright © Ducksters.
  22. a silver coin or, later, bronze coin of ancient Rome worth a quarter of a denarius, equal to 2½ asses: introduced in the 3rd century b.c.
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