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The painting shows the a Roman slave market with people wearing clay tablets to identify them and the owner of their labor. Identifying slaves and and a citizen's eligibility for benefits and even a liability for taxes in Rome was often done with a clay plaque made with a charag to produce a "Charagma". The Greek word Charagma is translate "mark", as in the Mark of the Beast, in the book of Revelation. The word means specifically a “badge of servitude”. Beasts in prophecy are generally identified as governments of the world. What is your government issued "badge of servitude" required by law in almost every country in the world to get work, bank accounts, benefits, even a passport or identification?


The word Charagma is a Greek word found in Latin text of the time of Christ. In the Greek concordances it is listed as 5480 ~χάραγμα~ charagma \@khar’-ag-mah\@ from the same as charax from charasso to sharpen to a point; n n AV-mark 8, graven 1; 9

1) a stamp, an imprinted mark
1a) of the mark stamped on the forehead or the right hand as the badge of the followers of the Antichrist
1b) the mark branded upon horses
2) thing carved, sculpture, graven work
2a) of idolatrous images

To engrave anything in clay a .charax would be used. The Romans would call objects with names or identifying marks Charagma or Charagmate.

Even Tesserae , meaning "tile" were tokens that could be engraved of clay or lead or even bronze or stone. There are many examples through out history of the use of such items to identify individuals.

These tokens became evidence of your entitlements in the world of Rome.


In ancient times the Fathers or Elders of a household gave tessera hospitalis as gifts to identify trusted friends or servants of the family called tesserae hospitālēs.

These ties were hereditary, with responsibilities descending from generation to generation.

"The tessera hospitalis was the token of mutual hospitality, and is spoken of under Hospitium, p619A. This token was probably in many cases of earthenware, having the head of Jupiter Hospitalis stamped upon it."[1]

When the State became the Conscripted Fathers of the people by election and application:

"This same systems was used to provide government welfare. It is clear that these are almost precisely the duties an practices devolving upon members of our own great benevolent societies at the present time when appealed to by a citizen in distress."[2]

Many societies became dependent upon elaborate systems of taxation which required systems of identification of members or citizens. These 'pinakion were used to identify an individuals obligations and entitlements or benefits in a particular society. They were often made of clay with etched information in them before they were fired.

Bronze ID for citizen juror or pinakion, inscribed with name of the individual, the patronymic or fathers name, and deme (a political division of Attica in ancient Greece), fourth century B.C. [3]
Identification token of a cavalry commander.[4]

In Judea Gabbai [tax collector], collected ... ground-, income-, and poll-taxes while the Mokhes collected duty upon imports and exports; on all that was bought and sold.... They had invented taxes that reached into the life of almost everyone. There were taxes based on the number of axles, wheels, pack-animals, pedestrians, the use of roads, highways; on admission to markets; on carriers, bridges, ships, and quays; on crossing rivers, on dams, on licenses, in short, on such a variety of objects, that even the research of modern scholars has not been able to identify all the names.[5]

They not only had to collect these taxes, but they had to keep track of who had paid and who had not, as well as who was a taxpayer and who was exempt or excluded. Among the slaves, citizens, and residents there were more than one status. They had many ways to keep track of slave and freeman as well as who had paid and who was still owing on the myriad of taxes, fees, and tariffs, including interest, and penalties.

Both Greeks and Romans used small framed boards filled with wax or clay. A thin coating of dark wax was used for brief or short term notations. Scratching letters in the soft wax with a stylus so that the light-colored backing would show through. The tablets were sometimes linked together with rings, which was called a codex.

There has always been two basic Welfare types in societies throughout history. One is by freewill offerings and the other by force. They often are a key to sealing the fate of society an nations.

These clay tiles that became a titulus in a welfare state were not a new thing to Romans.

A tessera was used as the ancient Roman equivalent of a theater ticket. Stamped into a clay shard was an entrance aisle and row number for spectators attending an event at an amphitheater or arena. Above the doors of the Colosseum in Rome are numbers corresponding to those stamped into a spectator's tessera.

But they often had a far more official purpose within the citizenship of the organized state.


Tesserae frumentariae[6] and nummariae were tokens given at certain times by the Roman magistrates to citizens, in exchange for which they received a fixed amount of wheat or money.[7] This was the original EBT card[8] to obtain Welfare in the form of free benefits from Benefactors who exercised authority one over the other.

TES′SERA, dim. TESSE′RULA and TESSEL′LA (κύβος), a square or cube; a die; a token. "a small tablet (as of wood, bone, or ivory) used by the ancient Romans as a ticket, tally, voucher, or means of identification[2] "


A “Charagma is well attested to have been an imperial seal of the Roman Empire used on official documents during the first and second centuries.” [9]

"The Roman government under Augustus had already been issuing (inscribed ) Tesserae (tiles) as proof of entitlement to the periodic grain doles.[10]"[11]

In the time of Caligula there is a record of the people providing what would be called in Greek a charagma. A chragma was required by the time of Nero to do business in the market place but before him we know that Claudius had exiled many Jews because of their lack of cooperation and trouble making.

What kind of trouble and what kind of Jew?

Christians for the most part were considered Jews. They claimed a king of the Jews[12] as their king and often did contrary to the decrees of Caesar.[13] Claudius had exiled many of them from Rome.[14]

Why would you have one of these state issued charagmas?

So you could get benefits as members of a system of Qorban that provided social welfare.

In ancient Latin text we see this use of Charagma, a Greek word that could represent the badge of servitude or obligation used in reference to a trial to determine the jurisdiction of the court.

  • Yes, yes, indeed, that these protocols in belligerent opposition to the judicial authority has no power of its own, when a truce was not destined to be accepted into this rather, that fulfills certain formula, and so charagma with a registered notary asserted that there is likely to be authentic copies of perpetual faith can be transferred to shows like the cap. because of the 'trial...[15]

Faith had to do with who you trusted, went to, applied to for the benefits of your society, your Health, Education and Welfare. "Protection draws subjection and subjection Protection."

Caligula before Claudius in AD 37-41 almost bankrupted the system of Qorban in Rome and Pontius Pilate took funds out to build an aqueduct at Jerusalem in Judea and caused a riot.

Those who paid into the emperor's system of Qorban received a certification that they were members of that system. By the reign of Emperor Decius AD 250), those who their proof of sacrifice to Caesar could be excluded from the market place. During this time they had price controls and sales tax and identification was essential for enforcement.

The system of Qorban was at the center of the Roman/Christian conflict. It was also at the center of the conflict between Christ and the Pharisees whose system of Corban made the word of God to non effect.[16]

  • Our modern ideas of religion differ from the meaning of the word in the days the Bible was written. Pure religion was a religion rooted in charity alone.
  • Celsus, a Platonist, writing during the term of Marcus Aurelius, “opposed the ‘sectarian’ tendencies at work in the Christian movement because he saw in Christianity a ‘privatizing’ of religion, the transferal of religious values from the public sphere to a private association.”


Roman Emperor Septimius Severus
  • This persecution which began under the Emperor Septimius Severus:
    • "Severus returned victorious from having vanquished the kings who had taken part with Nigar against him, he published his cruel edicts against the Christians in the year of Christ 202, the tenth of his reign. But the general laws of the empire against foreign religions, and the former edicts of several emperors against the Christians, were a sufficient warrant to many governors to draw the sword against them before that time; and we find that the persecution was very hot in Africa two years before, under the proconsul Saturninus..." [18] See Christian conflict

Christians believed all kinds of things about God and the afterlife etc. Jesus said little bout that but he was clear that you could not be Benefactors like the gentiles who exercised authority one over the other and forced the contributions of the people.

The position should be clear that the mark or badge of the beast that proves you must bow down and serve the beast comes in many forms. It will make things difficult so that you can hardly buy or sell in the market place if you do not have the badge of service.

This has happened off and on throughout the ages and is happening again.

For a more detailed look at what Revelation real says go to:

In Strong’s. “5480 charagma, χαράγμα, khar-ag-mah; did include a graven mark. Strong’s concordance translated mark (8) - graven (1) is defined 1a) a stamp, an imprinted mark: of the mark stamped on the forehead or the right hand as the badge of the followers of the Antichrist; the mark branded upon horses.

A Charagma appeared in many forms and for many purposes but most often to identify someone or something as property or wards and servants who owed service "i.e. stamp (as a badge of servitude)". It could even just be in writing like a charagmati χαράγματι and serve the same purpose.

Charagma vs CardSee [3]
10/29/2012 A discussion on the thirteenth chapter of the book, The Covenants of the gods, titled Charagma vs. Card. The Charagma is a Greek word that represented the badge of servitude yesterday, whereas the Card is the badge of servitude today. The book of Revelation says that to buy or sell people will need to have or hold this mark or charagma. Audio

So what is the Charagma of the Beast or what the Bible calls the Mark of the Beast?

Do you have the Mark of the Beast already?

Could you live today without that Mark of the Beast?

Have you been seeking the Kingdom of God and his Righteousness and attending to the Weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith which include caring for the needs of our neighbors and the widows and orphans of our society through Pure Religion in matters of health, education, and welfare. We are NOT to do so by the Covetous Practices of modern governments.

The Way of Christ was like neither the way of the world nor the governments of the gentiles who depend on benefactors who exercise authority. Christ's ministers and true Christians do not depend upon systems of social welfare that force the contributions of the people like the corban of the Pharisees which made the word of God to none effect. Many people have been deceived to go the way of Balaam and the Nicolaitan and out of The Way of Christ.

The Christian conflict of the first century Church appointed by Christ was because they would not apply to the fathers of the earth for benefits but instead relied upon a voluntary network providing a daily ministration to the needy of society through Faith, Hope, and Charity by way of freewill offerings of the people, for the people, and by the people through the perfect law of liberty in Free Assemblies according to the ancient pattern of Tuns or Tens.

The modern Christians are in need of repentance.

"Follow me!" —Jesus the Christ.



  1. Plaut. Poen. V.1.25; 2.87‑99).
  3. original photo
  4. original photo source
  5. “Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah” Bible CD: Chapter III.
  6. Frumentarii Frumentarii were officials of the Roman Empire, originally wheat collectors, who also acted as the secret service of the Roman Empire in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
  7. Smith, Sir William (1859), A dictionary of Greek and Roman antiquities (2 ed.), Little, Brown, and Co., p. 550 [1]
  8. Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) is an electronic system that allows state welfare departments to issue benefits via a magnetically encoded payment card, used in the United States and the United Kingdom like Rome did with their Tesserae.
  9. Walter A. Elwell (Ed.). Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. 1996. 22nd, July, 2003.
  10. Suetonius, Aug. 40.2 42.3
  11. The First Christians in the Roman World: Augustan and New Testament Essays, Page 425, By E. A. Judge. Mohr Siebeck, Jan 1, 2008 - Religion - 786 pages.
  12. Luke 23:38 And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. John 19:19 ¶ And Pilate wrote a title, and put [it] on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.
  13. Acts 17:7 Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, [one] Jesus.
  14. Acts 18:2 And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.
  15. Verum enim yeró protocoli isthaec authoritas in furo in iudiciis vim süam no habet, cum illius vius ad id destinatus non fuerit, fed in hoc potius, vt sanquam formula quaedam, & fo lemne quoddam charagma apud notarium asseruertur , vt inde authentica exemplaria perpetuam habitura fidem transcribi valeant ficuti ostendit cap. quoníam contra, de’ probatio
    Rerum quotidianarum libri duo
    The two daily books or registries
    By Juan Yáñez Parladorio 1680 - 315 of 492 pages
  16. Mark 7:11 But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, [It is] Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; [he shall be free]. And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother; Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye.
  17. Christians as the Romans Saw Them, by Robert Wilken page 125.
  18. The Lives of the Saints. Volume VII: July. 1866. Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).
  19. Matthew 20:25-26 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them. But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister;
    Mark 10:42-43 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them. But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister:
    Luke 22:25-26 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors. But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.