The concepts of "Right Reason" came from the ideas born out of the Age of Reason.
Natural Law Definition: ... "There is, in fact, a true law - namely right reason - which is in accordance with nature, applies to all men, and is unchangeable and eternal. By its commands, this law summons men to the performance of their duties. By its prohibitions, it restrains them from doing wrong."
- “True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting; it summons to duty by its commands, and averts from wrongdoing by its prohibitions… It is a sin to try to alter this law, nor is it allowable to repeal any part of it, and it is impossible to abolish it entirely. We cannot be freed from its obligations by senate or people, and we need not look outside ourselves for an expounder or interpreter of it. And there will not be different laws at Rome and at Athens, or different laws now and in the future, but one eternal and unchangeable law will be valid for all nations and at all times, and there will be one master and ruler, that is God, over us all, for he is the author of this law, its promulgator and its enforcing judge. Whoever is disobedient is fleeing from himself and denying his human nature, and by reason of this very fact he will suffer the worst punishment.” – Marcus Tullius Cicero
“[A]ll existing things are subject to decay and change is a truth that scarcely needs proof; for the course of nature is sufficient to force this conviction on us.” Polybius and Aristotle believed in the political doctrine of anacyclosis which is that the theory of political evolution is cyclical.
Concerning the "rule by the one, the few, and the many" Democracy is not the rule by the many but rather rule by the majority whereas a true Republic is the rule of the many individuals by the each individual in voluntary cooperation with each other through "Right Reason" or "Divine Will. This is because the leaders of a true Republic are titular and they may only rule over things public that are freely given to them.
It is not "Right Reason" to think you are a product of your own "self-creation". You cannot be a part of society today without due humble recognition of the generations that have gone before. This begins with honoring your Father and Mother but continues from our forgotten ancestral beginnings to the unseen progeny of the eternal future which all reside in the heuristics of a timeless God.
Atheism is the scapegoat of moral bankruptcy while the heuristic term "God" includes the phrase "divine will", which has always been defined as "right reason". Determining what is right reason may remain the province of the individual in unencumbered capitalism, but it becomes the proposition of a few and eventually the dictate of tyrants in socialism.
While the idea of God may be incomprehensible, mysterious and beyond our grasp as a heuristic God. The idea of God is composed of different elements almost too numerous to list. But by His defined nature being infinite a comprehensive list of characteristics, though incomplete, are regularly attempted by the theologies of the finite. By denial of the true nature of our divine originator, we are in denial of our own nature. Or else we are in denial of the truth about ourselves and feel an absence, a lack, an emptiness in our experiential existence which press us into an ever-present quest for the perfect model that will fill, satisfy or relieve the pain of that emptiness.
The ultimate model must be the unreachable or unknown "personality of God" for we are made in His image. God is courageous and compassionate, just and forgiving. God is the idea of a giving disciplinarian who gives us life and a place to live it but not without creating Natural law to lead or guide us from destruction to abundance. When we divide God into gods with the different attribute and subsequent flaws we dilute the model.
The idea that we were not created by an Omnipotent Divine Designer Creator Father but simply evolved as complex chemical reactions from primordial slime with no intelligent design would be a downer to some but liberating to others who could denounce all moral absolutes and the existence of free will as nothing more than products of deluded dendritic imagery.
In the story of Cain and Able, Able is the victim of injustice and the murder by Cain who sinned against the God of life. Without God, there is no sin. So to those who merely evolved over billions of generations Cain, who both dominates and reproduces the next generation becomes the fittest to survive. Cain becomes the hero of the story.
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- Polybius, The Histories 6.57.
- Anacyclos is a cyclical theory of political evolution. The theory of anacyclosis is based upon the Greek typology of constitutional forms of rule by the one, the few, and the many.