Forgive them

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"forgive them for they know not"
  • Luke 23:34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.

There has been some controversial interpretations of this verse Luke 23:34. There really is no valid reason for it since by standard Greek it is actually fairly cut and dry.

It has been suggested that Luke 23:34 should be translated "father forgive them not for they know what they do" rather than the commonly accepted "forgive them for they know not what they do".

If "not" modifies "know" then "they know not" if it modifies "forgive" then Jesus is asking God to "forgive not".

This alternate translation is drawn from the fact if you look at an interlinear translation you will see the word Greek word order as "father forgive them not for they know what they do" beneath the Greek terms in the order of their appearance in the text.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
3588 1161 2424 3004 3962 863 846 3756 1063 1492 5101 4160.
δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν Πάτερ, ἄφες αὐτοῖς· οὐ γὰρ οἴδασιν τί ποιοῦσιν.
~ and Jesus said Father forgive them not for they know what they do

Many languages use different word order than English. Some put verb last in a sentence, like Latin, or will put verbs first like in the famous German example of "Throw the cow over the fence some hay" which can create an alternate meaning when translated because of German word order verses English word order.

Many aspects of the syntax of Greek have remained constant throughout its history. Sometimes people can get lost in the linguistics but in this case trying to understand the syntax and the words that are used is fairly clear. There is in fact another reason for the confusion which we will all have to personally address eventually.

Greek may use word order, not so much for syntax, but for what linguists might call discourse planning. It has been suggested this is customarily done in order to let the reader or listener know what the author or speaker is talking about and what the most salient information is. There is a very consistent way of doing this in Greek.

According to William Hersey Davis' Beginner's Grammar of the Greek New Testament the Greek word gar (γὰρ)[1] which we see as for is a conjunction or 'cause' word which always considered to be 'postpositive'.[2] Because it is postpositive it can never come first in the clause it begins therefore with the Greek word "not" would precedes the word "for".[3]

There is actually no real reason for postpositives to occupy the position they do, except for the fact that they do. Japanese, for example, has postpositions which come after the nouns, but do the same job as English prepositions. It is simply the way the language developed. There is really very little if any debate among Greek scholars concerning the translation of Luke 23:34.

Because of the consistency of the Greek language and these basic rules concerning postpositive words there is no doubt that the translation should read in English,

"Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do".

Yet some continue to try to explain that Christ Himself taught, and as the Old Testament testifies, forgiveness is based upon repentance and then ask did these Jews ever repent of their sin?

Then they proclaim that they never did which often leads to an excuse for anti-Semitism. The truth is while there may be collective sin each person's sin must be judged individually. So the idea that we can blame the modern Jew for the crucifixion is absurd.

Besides there is evidence that Caiaphas[4] may have repented and little or no evidence that other Jews did not repent. After all there were only a few hundred Jews actually involved in the crucifixion and many of them only played a small part.

Considering the fact that John the Baptist was not even sure that Jesus was the Messiah[5] and most of the Apostles did not know for sure who He was[6] it would seem reasonable that the Pharisees actually did not know what they were doing.

Even Peter when addressing those who caused the death of Christ brings up the idea that they did not know what they were doing.[7]

  • Acts 3:17 And now, brethren, I wot that through ignorance ye did [it], as [did] also your rulers. 18 But those things, which God before had shewed by the mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he hath so fulfilled.

And then continues to call them to repentance telling them that Jesus was here to fulfill a mission that would include blessing them as well with His death.

  • Acts 3:19 Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord; And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you:... 25 Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed. 26 Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities.

Even Paul proclaims they did not know what they were doing in 1 Corinthians 2:8.

  • 1 Corinthians 2:8 Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known [it], they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

Certainly all the Jews were not to blame and many of them began to follow Jesus and became the Ministers of His Church like Joses who became Barnabas and many others.

  • Acts 6:7 And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly; and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith.

Way back in Isaiah 53:12 it was prophesied that the Messiah would make a prayer for the forgiveness of those who would be his transgressors even unto death.

  • Isaiah 53:12 Therefore will I divide him [a portion] with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

Forgiveness of men is not the absolution of God. Forgiveness is fasting or rejecting the temptation to judge for ourselves, to decide good and evil for others. Forgiveness by us is leaving judgment to God who is a righteous judge. This is one of those Mysteries of the Universe that makes our Spiritual DNA important. If we trust in God we trust in His Judgment and His righteousness.

If we usurp God and seek to punish people with our own judgment we are interfering with, even usurping God. If you desire to judge for God do not expect God to intervene on your behalf. Many people say they believe in God and even have a form of godliness but they deny the power of God to judge by failing to forgive and wanting to pass judgment on others.

We are to love our enemy[8] and judge not lest we be judged. We are to attend to the weightier matters but for the purpose of protecting the innocent not punishing the wicked.

The spirit of the times have created a prison system that is supposedly there to punish sinners against society or at least the lawmakers of governments. The put someone in jail for 5 years at a cost to society of a quarter of a million dollars for doing no damage or injuring no one. The excuse this by saying they must pay their debt to society which has gone farther into debt in the process.

The governments of the world are to punish the wicked but the wicked is often the people who create those governments. The government of God leaves punishment to God and uses its courts only to protect the innocent. It certainly would not punish all of society with a goal of vengeance.

We are to be n the world but not of the "world". God has power to bring his judgment upon those who abuse or seek to abuse us.We do not have to be the judge of others. We may forgive and leave, trusting in God, to He who made us and is making us daily as we sumit to His will. [9]

Forgiveness by us is an essential part of the process of seeking the Kingdom of God and His righteousness.[10]

This is why to be faithful to The Way of Christ we, as His Church, must have a daily ministration showing mercy[11] to all with mercy rejoicing against judgment but standing fast in good works toward one another in daily sacrifice.[12]

Forgiveness and mercy by us allows God to bring in His powers and mercy and His righteous judgment.

If we truly forgive there should be no pain and little to forget. Forgiveness allows you to remember without pain. Forgiveness is the end of conflict.

Forgiveness works

Mark 11:26 But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.

According to this direct statement from Jesus, if you do not forgive, neither will you be forgiven. That means if you are having trouble with forgiving others, then you probably do not really believe in Jesus and any secured salvation you believe you have is probably a strong delusion.

Forgiving is not just an idea or a thought. It is a state of mind so fundamental it alters the mind and the body.

The word forgive is defined: to "stop feeling angry or resentful toward (someone) for an offense, flaw, or mistake."

You may think you forgive if you think forgiving is easy, but if you are still remembering the lies and deception with pain and anguish, then your forgiveness itself is a deception. Unforgiveness includes personal judgement.

We are told not to judge less we be judged. The hooks of judgement remain in your heart and you are not yet free.

Dr. Stephen Marmer, UCLA psychiatrist, shares the three types of forgiveness--exoneration, forbearance, and release for Prager U. This description talks about forgiveness in relationships. Release allows you to let go of the burden or unforgiveness and evict unwanted relationship of judgment and hate. Time 5:40

The video to the right divides forgiveness into exoneration, forbearance, and release. Exoneration [13] can include when we have judged someone who was truly sorry for their actions and they hold no evil intent; they humbly take full responsibility for their error. Their response may include complete restitution, and they willingly assent to follow better ways that are less prone to error. We wipe the slate clean (forgiving them), because their diligence to fully resolve the issue demonstrated their honorable response.

The idea of forbearance is when the individual may not be entirely sorry, but you choose not to seek revenge or hold a grudge against them. You are leaving judgement to God, while knowing that the individual still may not be worthy of your trust. [14]

The third is release which may have nothing to do with the offender and everything to do with you. Release should accompany every form of true forgiveness. To entertain a condemning judgment and anger, desiring revenge or punishment for the offender is an usurpation of God and His law. True forgiveness is a matter of faith. It is faith in the existence of God and His law, and it extends to a belief that God is truly in charge of judgement.

Most times, an act of forgiveness is a return to a faith in God. It is a letting go of the judgement of others. Walking in forgiveness is walking in the grace of God so that you do not have to return to forgiveness but are already there and have not usurped God's right to judge nor taken personal offense.

Every opportunity to forgive is a possibility of receiving a blessing and gift from God to be cherished with joy. The mechanics of releasing the bonds that bind us in pain is to desire release for others as much as we desire to be free ourselves.

We are saved by grace.[15] But we do not receive grace if we only love those who love us. We receive grace when we love those who do not love us, including those who may spitefully use us, those who are even our enemy.[16]

What is unforgiveness?

Unforgiveness is the result of a lack of faith in a God of creation.

They imagine that someone got away with something. Forgiveness comes from trusting in God.

Miracles of Grace

Luke 5:23 Whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Rise up and walk?

Why can't we say arise and walk?

Why are our hands not full of the virtue of Christ that heals body and soul?

Is it because we do not really forgive with - or out of - the forgiveness that is of Christ?

We may all have different gifts, but they come in proportion to the grace of God and the grace of God comes with the grace we extend to others.[17] If you do not give grace, do not expect to receive grace.

If we bless those who by grace are servants of God ministering to the people in faith, then we may be blessed -- not in accordance with what we pray for for ourselves but what we pray for for others.[18] If we wish ill will for others or desire to use others or seek to burden others, we ourselves will be oppressed. If we are Biting one another, we too may be devoured. As we judge, so shall we be judged.[19]

If we come in the Name of Christ, which is to say in character of Christ, then the power of Christ will be measured to us by grace. [20]

The purpose of a Network of congregations and ministers serving one another is to produce a flow of grace from one to another in service, so that grace abounds in spirit and in truth.[21]

Can we be forgiven if we forgive not those who use us, abuse us, betray us, spit on us or nail us to a cross?

In recent broadcasts, I talked about forgiveness... Not only of those who love us but of those who use us and even abuse us.

forgiveness is releasing the chains that bind us.

We are to love our enemies, whether real or imagined.

If they are really our enemy and do not understand real forgiveness, they will flee us, not we them.

Romans 12:20 Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.

This verse begins with therefore because we are told in Romans 12:18 "If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men."

Because the master said:

Matthew 5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same? And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so? Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.
Emperor Marcus Aurelius shows clemency to the vanquished after his success against tribes. (Capitoline Museum in Rome)

Wikipedia says "Forgiveness is the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as vengefulness, with an increased ability to wish the offender well."

It included a picture of Marcus Aurelius who showed clemency for those he vanquished but feared and persecuted Christians because they did not depend for their Welfare on the Imperial Cult of Rome and its Temples. The “the union and discipline of the Christian republic... gradually formed an independent and increasing state in the heart of the Roman Empire.”[22]

Christians depended upon the Pure Religion and Corban of Christ through His Church. Celsus, a Platonist, writing during the term of Marcus Aurelius, “opposed the ‘sectarian’ tendencies at work in the Christian movement because he saw in Christianity a ‘privatizing’ of religion, the transferal of religious values from the public sphere to a private association.”[23]

The difference between public and private welfare is the difference between Public religion and Private Religion, or socialism and charity. The nations of the Pax Romana had made the power of the state their benefactors while Christians were living by love for one another according to the commandments of Christ. This was the Christian conflict.

If you do not forgive, neither will you be forgiven, no matter how much you say or imagine that you believe. Keeping the Commandment to forgive is not hard if you really love the real Jesus. It is not about works, but forgiveness is the evidence of your true heart of Faith and the kingdom within. If you are not finding forgiveness in your heart, then you still have need of repentance.

Matthew 6:14 15 "For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you: But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses"
Matthew 18:34-35 "And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him. So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses."
Mark 11:25-26 "And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have ought against any: that your Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses. But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses."

Real forgiveness works

Forgiveness is the end of conflict because it sets us free. There should be no residue or pain nor fear of enemy nor discomfort if we reach a point of true forgiveness.

If we have not, then we need to face those we have not truly forgiven so that we may be free....

Forgiveness will open the door to healing, first in ourselves and then in others.

Do not be angry at the world or at the governments of the world. Your true enemy is your own un-forgiveness. One of the purposes of the Church established by Jesus and the ministers whom He appointed was and is to feed the flock as Benefactors who do not exercise authority and to attend to the Weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith which include caring for the needs of our neighbors and the widows and orphans of our society through Pure Religion in matters of health, education, and welfare. We are NOT to do so by the Covetous Practices of modern governments.

The Way of Christ was like neither the way of the world nor the governments of the gentiles who depend on benefactors who exercise authority. Christ's ministers and true Christians do not depend upon systems of social welfare that force the contributions of the people like the corban of the Pharisees which made the word of God to none effect. Many people have been deceived to go the way of Balaam and the Nicolaitan and out of The Way of Christ.

The Christian conflict of the first century Church appointed by Christ was because they would not apply to the fathers of the earth for benefits but instead relied upon a voluntary network providing a daily ministration to the needy of society through Faith, Hope, and Charity by way of freewill offerings of the people, for the people, and by the people through the perfect law of liberty in Free Assemblies according to the ancient pattern of Tuns or Tens.

The modern Christians are in need of repentance.

"Follow me!" —Jesus the Christ.


We cannot fulfill the mission of Christ unless we forgive, and that forgiveness empowers us with a secret weapon of God ... it is His Love.

Ancient forgiveness

The term nasa’ ^אשׂנ^[25] is translated forgive only 16 times, but to bear up or lift over three hundred times. Forgiving may not be forgetting what someone has done to you, but it leads you to actually bear up the pain in them that caused them to injure you.

Another word we see translated forgive is calach ^חלס^.[26] As an adjective it means ready to forgive.[27]

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  1. 1063 ~γάρ~ gar \@gar\@ a primary particle; ; conj AV-for 1027, misc 28, not tr 12; 1067 1) for
  2. Words that often begin a clause when translated into English, but never begin a clause in Greek are called postpositives. A postpositive is positioned (posited) after (post) other words in the clause. Often, a postpositive will be the second word in its clause. The following conjunctions are postpositives. γάρ = for; δέ = but, and; οὖν = therefore
  3. " Greek. In the N. T. a@n, ga<r, ge<, de<, me<n, me<ntoi, ou#n, te never begin a sentence, in harmony with ancient Greek usage. These words commonly in the N. T. come in the second place..."GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT IN THE LIGHT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH BY A. T. ROBERTSON, M.A., D.D., LL.D., LITT.D. Professor of Interpretation of the New Testament in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary Louisville, Ky. Page 434,
  4. There are a number of audio files that touch on Caiaphas:
    Judges, Word Judge - Part 1 of 2
    First hour in Jesus series:
    Second hour in Jesus series:
    Fourth hour in series on FEMA:
  5. Luke 7:20 When the men were come unto him, they said, John Baptist hath sent us unto thee, saying, Art thou he that should come? or look we for another?
  6. Luke 9:18 ¶ And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him: and he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am? 19 They answering said, John the Baptist; but some say, Elias; and others say, that one of the old prophets is risen again. 20 He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God.
  7. Acts 3:13 The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let [him] go. 14 But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you; 15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses. 16 And his name through faith in his name hath made this man strong, whom ye see and know: yea, the faith which is by him hath given him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all.
  8. Matthew 5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
  9. Luke 1:67 ¶ And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying, 68 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people, 69 And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David; 70 As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began: 71 That we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us; 72 To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant; 73 The oath which he sware to our father Abraham, 74 That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear, 75 In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life. 76 And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways; 77 To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins, 78 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us, 79 To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace. 80 And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel.
  10. Matthew 7:1 Judge not, that ye be not judged. Matthew 7:2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. Luke 6:37 Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven:
  11. James 2:12 So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty. 13 For he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoiceth against judgment.
  12. James 2:14 ¶ What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? can faith save him? 15 If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food, 16 And one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth it profit? 17 Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone. 18 Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works. 19 Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble. 20 But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead?
  13. Exonerate: late Middle English < Latin exonerātus >; to unburden; ex = out of or without; oner (stem of onus) = burden.
  14. Forbearance is suffering. You suffer in the environment where the offender who is not entirely sorry is continuing other offenses (or repeating former offenses). Although you desire their actions of diligence, to fully resolve the issue(s), they do not understand how to do what diligence requires, or they refuse to do what they know they ought to do, and so you patiently wait, as they neglect something you hope they will gladly do as a loving act toward you. You grant them more time to grow and see what is their responsibility.
  15. Ephesians 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) Ephesians 2:8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:
  16. Luke 6:32 For if ye love them which love you, what thank <5485> have ye? for sinners also love those that love them. 33 And if ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank <5485> have ye? for sinners also do even the same. 34 And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank <5485> have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again.
  17. Romans 12:6 Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith;
  18. 2 Corinthians 8:4 Praying us with much intreaty that we would receive the gift <5485>, and take upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints.
  19. Matthew 7:1 Judge not, that ye be not judged. Matthew 7:2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. Luke 6:37 Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven:
  20. Ephesians 4:7 But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ.
  21. 1 Peter 4:10 As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God.
  22. Comment on Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Rousseau and Revolution, Will et Ariel Durant p.801. fn 83 Heiseler, 85.
  23. Christians as the Romans Saw Them, by Robert Wilken page 125.
  24. Matthew 20:25-26 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them. But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister;
    Mark 10:42-43 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them. But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister:
    Luke 22:25-26 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors. But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
  25. 05375 ^אשׂנ^ nasa’ \@naw-saw’\@ or ^הסנ^ nacah (#Ps 4:6) \@naw-saw’\@ a primitive root; v; AV-(bare, lift, etc … ) up 219, bear 115, take 58, bare 34, carry 30, (take, carry)  … away 22, borne 22, armourbearer 18, forgive 16, accept 12, exalt 8, regard 5, obtained 4, respect 3, misc 74; 654
    1) to lift, bear up, carry, take
    1a) (Qal)
    1a1) to lift, lift up
    1a2) to bear, carry, support, sustain, endure
    1a3) to take, take away, carry off, forgive
    1b) (Niphal)
    1b1) to be lifted up, be exalted
    1b2) to lift oneself up, rise up
    1b3) to be borne, be carried
    1b4) to be taken away, be carried off, be swept away
    1c) (Piel)
    1c1) to lift up, exalt, support, aid, assist
    1c2) to desire, long (fig.)
    1c3) to carry, bear continuously
    1c4) to take, take away
    1d) (Hithpael) to lift oneself up, exalt oneself
    1e) (Hiphil)
    1e1) to cause one to bear (iniquity)
    1e2) to cause to bring, have brought
  26. 05545 ^חלס^ calach \@saw-lakh’\@ a primitive root; v; AV-forgive 19, forgiven 13, pardon 13, spare 1; 46
    1) to forgive, pardon
    1a) (Qal) to forgive, pardon
    1b) (Niphal) to be forgiven
  27. 05546 ^חלס^ callach \@saw-lawkh’\@ from 05545; adj; AV-ready to forgive 1; 1 1) ready to forgive, forgiving

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Hue and cry | Go and cry | Cry out | Employ | Land | Mind |
Corban | Christian conflict | Nicolaitan | Religion | Pure Religion |
Welfare_types | Daily ministration | Self-Sacrifice‎ | Repent |
Weightier matters | Altars | Sophistry | Friend | Stones |
Forgiveness | Forgive | Forgive them | In need of forgiveness |
Wantonness‎ | Covet | Negotiating_Health_Care_Costs |‏‎

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